Located in the continent of Asia, Iran covers 1,531,595 square kilometers of land and 116,600 square kilometers of water, making it the 18th largest nation in the world with a total area of 1,648,195 square kilometers.
Iran was founded as a distinct and original nation in 1502. The population of Iran is about 80 million and the nation has a density of 51 people per square kilometer.
Iran shares land borders with 7 countries: Turkey, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan.
The official language of country is Persian, and its various dialects are; speakers of Kirmanji, the term for related dialects spoken by the Kurds who live in the cities, towns, and villages of western Iran and adjacent areas of Iraq and Turkey; speakers of Luri, the language of the Bakhtiaris and Lurs who live in the Zagros; and Baluchi, the language of the seminomadic people who live in southeastern Iran and adjacent areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Approximately 28 percent of the population speaks various dialects of Turkish. Speakers of Semitic languages include Arabs and Assyrians.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran mandates that the official religion of Iran is Shia Islam and the Twelver Ja'fari school, though it also mandates that other Islamic schools are to be accorded full respect, and their followers are free to act in accordance with their own jurisprudence in performing their religious rites and recognizes Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian Iranians as religious minorities.
Among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day - at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening. During the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing.
In Iran, the family is the basis of the social structure. The concept of family is more private than in many other cultures. Female relatives must be protected from outside influences and are taken care of at all times. It is inappropriate to ask questions about an Iranian's wife or other female relatives.